Introduction: American hophornbeam is a small understory tree of well-drained, deciduous forests that thrives on neglect.It is the upland equivalent to hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana). Family Betulaceae . The leaf underside is brighter. Genus Carpinus are deciduous shrubs and trees with attractive foliage and hop-like fruit clusters in late summer and autumn . American Hornbeam flowers in April to May with multiple small, non-showy, flowers that appear in catkins before the leaves do. To establish the roots of a new tree, keep the ground damp for the first two to three years during the growing season. And they can present with leaf scorch or leaf spots. Although American hophornbeam's fall color is not sensational, it helps to "soften" the autumn landscape. Plant in the spring. The American hornbeam grows slowly, about 12â per year, reaching an average height and spread of 20-30â² over a life span of 50-150 years. see more; Synonyms Carpinus americana. Plant in the spring. Installing drip irrigation for summer maintenance is helpful. Difficult to transplant due to deep spreading lateral roots. It produces dark green summer leaves that turn a variegated orange in the fall. Insects that can affect a hornbeam include maple mealybugs and two-lined chestnut borers. leaf diseases; cankers; doesn't transplant well; ID Features. There are many different cultivars of American Hornbeam. Rippling, sinewy trunks and wood dense enough to dull carving tools have earned hornbeams (Carpinus spp.) The following menu has 3 levels. use escape to move to top level menu parent. Several fungi cause leaf spots on Hornbeam. Carpinus caroliniana, commonly called American hornbeam, is a slow-growing, deciduous, small to medium-sized understory tree with an attractive globular form.It is native to Missouri where it is typically found in rich moist woods, valleys, ravine bottoms and rocky slopes along streams throughout the eastern and Ozark regions of the state (Steyermark). It is part of the Betulaceae (birch) family and has several nicknames, including blue beech, muscle beech, water beech, muscletree, musclewood, and ironwood. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Insects and diseases are not usually serious problems for American hornbeam [ 27 ]. HornbeamâCarpinus caroliniana Family Betulaceae (Birch family) Plant Identification. American hornbeams typically do not need fertilizer, especially when the ground around the tree has grass that is fertilized. It is by David Lee. Hornbeam seeds, buds, and catkins are eaten by a number of songbirds as well as ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, wild turkey, and red a gray squirrels . The American hornbeam can be grown as a multi-stemmed shrub or as a single-stemmed tree. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Carpinus caroliniana, the American hornbeam, is a small hardwood tree in the genus Carpinus.American hornbeam is also known as blue-beech, and musclewood.It is native to eastern North America, from Minnesota and southern Ontario east to Maine, and south to eastern Texas and northern Florida.It also grows in Canada (southwest Quebec and southeast Ontario). in April; small female flowers near the ends of the twigs. American hornbeam is more difficult to transplant than European hornbeam. Many gardeners like to use a hornbeam as the focal point in a perennial garden by surrounding it with complementary flowers and mulch. Commonly found in wooded areas as an understory tree. Strain'): A vigorous cultivar with improved orange-red fall color. Building the urban forest for 2050. The American hornbeam looks gorgeous in all seasons. Other than providing regular watering, the hornbeam is relatively low-maintenance. Ideally it should get around four to six hours of light per day. ... Diseases: None are normally very serious. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. American hornbeam seedlings grown in full sun responded positively to increased nutrients (applied at levels to mimic the range of values for agricultural runoff and sewage sludge) . It will grow with an attractive open habit in total shade, but be dense in full sun. When the weather is hot and dry, give the tree a deep soak once per week. So if you'd like your hornbeam to have a single trunk with foliage growing above, make sure to prune it to have only one central leader. Hornbeams prefer fertile, moist, well-draining soil with an acidic to neutral soil pH, though they can tolerate slight alkalinity. Have tree and plant questions? Noteworthy Characteristics. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. However, hornbeam trees can develop cankers, or dead sections on the bark or branches. American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), also called blue-beech, ironwood, water-beech, or lechillo (Spanish), is a small slow-growing short-lived tree in the understory of eastern mixed hardwood forests. Hornbeam timber is a pale, creamy white with a flecked grain. It should be transplanted balled-and- burlapped in the spring. Light brown nutlets, maturing in October, with a three-lobed bract appearing as an umbrella over the nuts; nutlets and bracts in dangling clusters. Hornbeam or blue-beech is a common tree in our forests, and it also appears in many parks and gardens. Eastern Hophornbeam. In fall, the American hornbeam displays leaves of various colors, ranging from yellow to scarlet to reddish-purple. The American hornbeam is extremely resistant to both pests and diseases, so problems rarely arise. Sow seed when ripe in fall. Betulaceae -- Birch family. Go to list of cultivars. American hornbeam is a wonderful addition to small yards, and is also perfect for a natural landscape or as a specimen tree. Fruit forms in drooping clusters. The muscle-like bark is smooth, gray, and fluted. Tolerates dry, shady sites. Poor soil drainage will cause them to grow more slowly. Proper maintenance and appropriate water amounts should prevent this. ... American Hornbeam has a slow growth rate and is reportedly difficult to transplant from a field nursery (although we moved 10- inch-diameter trees with a 90-inch tree spade during the winter in USDA hardiness zone 8b with no problem); trees should plant easily from containers. That way, it won't outcompete other trees. How to Grow and Care for a Black Gum Tree. Come winter, its blue-gray bark creates a beautiful contrast to the snow in northern climates. A type of fungi, mildew wreaks havoc on a European hornbeam tree. Height â 30 to 50 feet (10 to 15 meters) Exposure â full sun Soil â ordinary Foliage â deciduous Flowering â spring. Bracts change from light green to yellow in fall. Hornbeams are very cold-hardy, and the American hornbeam is practically impervious to frost damage. The leaves are alternate with a doubly toothed margin. Within a submenu, use escape to move to top level menu parent. The hard wood of American hornbeam is used to make golf clubs, tool handles and mallets. It can be found naturally in areas with moist soil including streambanks, riverbanks, and maritime forests. So if you notice damaged foliage, they might be the culprits. Browse the curated collection and add your voice! Image 5445760 is of American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana ) seed(s). Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. Regular pruning will be necessary to maintain the hedge shape. A layer of mulch over the roots will help to retain soil moisture. Koch. Foliage is dark green with rough-edged leaves that hang on the tree late into the season. Even in winter, the tree's fluted blue-gray bark with long, sinewy ridges make it a special addition to the landscape. It is extremely hard; in fact it has the hardest wood of any tree in Europe. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 12 m (39 ft) high. American hornbeam, which is native to Illinois' woodlands, attains heights of 25 to 40 feet when mature. The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are yellow-green. A North American native tree boasting a kaleidoscope of color, American hornbeam unfurls striking reddish purple leaves in spring. Our future. This species is highly adaptable and can withstand some flooding, but it has a hard time dealing with drought conditions. These plants are cultivars of a species that is native to the Chicago Region according to Swink and Wilhelm's Plants of the Chicago Region, with updates made according to current research. Major hornbeam facts. Tolerates dry, shady sites. And they can present with leaf scorch or leaf spots. They include: Vanessa Richins Myers is a seasoned horticulturist, garden writer and educator with 10+ years of experience in the horticulture and gardening space. The American hornbeam is commonly found within the understory of hardwood forests, so it can thrive in partial to full shade. Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection, Full shade (4 hrs or less of light daily). The American Hornbeam is botanically called Carpinus caroliniana. Hornbeam Bug Leaf Damage. Native to the eastern half of the United States. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. New leaves emerge reddish-purple, changing to dark green, then turn yellow to orange-red in the fall, offering a kaleidoscope of color throughout the year. Ostrya carpinifolia, European hop hornbeam, is hardy to Zone 5 and is nearly identical to the American â¦ This species is native to the Chicago region according to Swink and Wilhelm's Plants of the Chicago Region, with updates made according to current research. This works well for adding privacy to your yard without the eyesore of a tall fence. Ripe seeds of American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) Use enter to activate. You can also prune this species to create a formal hedge or living fence. The fruit is a triangular, seed-like nutlet, enclosed in a hard, woody, four-lobed husk covered with bristles. Hornbeam has no serious pests or diseases. Best planted in the spring, this tree has a slow growth rate, gaining around a foot a year. You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. American Hop Hornbeam Common Problems. Trunk . For best results, start your American hornbeam from seed on site, or select a young tree from a reputable nursery. Just remember, your tree is miniature and will need a much smaller and more gentile dose of treatment. Native Flame® American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana 'JFS-KW6'): An upright form with bright red fall color; 30 feet high by 20 feet wide. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board, American hornbeam, blue beech, musclewood, ironwood, water beech, 20 to 25 feet wide and 20 to 35 feet tall. The reference to muscle relates to the tree's characteristic fluted trunk and branches that look like muscle tissue. Get expert help from The Morton Arboretum Plant Clinic. While it's a slow grower (it can take decades to reach its maximum size), this tree might cause crowding problems for neighboring trees down the road. Leaf-tip browning is an annoying condition that commonly affects certain types of houseplants. Nowadays, itâs mainly used for furniture, flooring and wood turning, but traditionally the wood was made into ox yokes which were â¦ American Hornbeam, Musclewood, or Ironwood, is a deciduous tree that may grow 30 to feet tall. Difficult to transplant due to deep spreading lateral roots. This tree brings interest to the winter landscape, too, by displaying blue-gray bark with a slightly rippled appearance that earned the common name musclewood. Inconspicuous; tiny male flowers in pendulous catkins in April; small female flowers near the ends of the twigs. Eastern hophornbeam is particularly prone to disease and rot in the trunk caused by the fungal pathogens, but is considered to be basically free of insect diseases. A handsome tree in many locations, the tree slowly reaches a height and spread of 20 to 30 feet. Our trees. Our communities. The tree likes Sun to shade at the location and the soil should be fresh humus soils. The Morton Arboretum is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of members and donors. Eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), also called American hophornbeam, hornbeam, leverwood, and "ironwood," is a small, short-lived tree scattered in the understory of hardwood forests.It has a slow to medium growth rate on a great variety of soils and produces an extremely hard wood. Palisade® American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana 'CCSQU'): An upright oval form with yellow-orange fall color; 20 to 30 feet high by 15 to 20 feet wide. This tree needs regular watering during dry spells. The bark â¦ A native tree with striking bark, it can be used in a naturalistic garden. Spider plants, tropical plants, and those with long, strappy leaves are especially susceptible.The main difficulty when confronting leaf-tip burn is to remember that it's a symptom of a larger problem (usually a cultural issue) as opposed to a condition in itself. The short, often crooked trunk covered with a smooth slate gray bark is characteristically ridged, resembling the muscles of a flexed arm. Optimum conditions for growth American Hornbeam originated in abandoned fields in North Carolina. F. T. Metzger. The hornbeam is a great tree to add to any landscape, as it's a medium size and resistant to most pests and diseases. Firespire™ American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana 'J.N. Ironwood has a slow growth rate and is reportedly difficult to transplant from a field nursery (although 10-inch-diameter trees were moved with a 90-inch tree spade during the winter in USDA hardiness zone 8b with no â¦ The specific fungi that causes disease in the hornbeam is powdery mildew. American Hop Hornbeam Varieties to Grow. The leaves of American hornbeam are ovoid, 5 â 10 cm (2 â 3.9 in) long, 3 â 4 cm (1.2 â 1.6 in) broad and pointed. Details C. caroliniana is a small, deciduous tree to around 10m tall with branches that droop at â¦ C-Value: 8 Botanical Name Carpinus caroliniana Common Name American hornbeam, blue beech, musclewood, ironwood, water beech Plant Type Deciduous tree Mature Size 20 to 25 feet wide and 20 to 35 feet tall Sun Exposure Part shade to full shade Soil Type Fertile, moist, well-draining Soil pH 4 to 7.4 Hardiness Zones 3 to 9 Native Area â¦ American Hornbeam Plant: Care and Growing Guide Read More » After repotting, your American hornbeam bonsai should be thoroughly watered. Blue-gray, fluted with long, sinewy ridges. One of the most common of all diseases that has an adverse affect on the European hornbeam is mildew. Cultivars are plants produced in cultivation by selective breeding or via vegetative propagation from wild plants identified to have desirable traits. Your American hornbeam bonsai can be treated for pests like a normal American hornbeam plant. The European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) is sometimes considered in some cultures as mystical, owing to its whitish, twisted trunk which branches profusely.The American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) is known as water beech or can have a blue-grey bark and is commonly identified as blue beech.The hornbeam is also sometimes called âironwoodâ because of its â¦ Its wood is very strong and sometimes is used to make tools and other implements. Hornbeams are somewhat slow-growing deciduous trees. Pests: Free of serious pests and diseases. Along those lines, remember to consider its mature size when planting. Other than that, you generally only have to prune to remove dead or diseased branches. The wood of eastern hophornbeam is very close grained, strong, heavy, and exceedingly hard. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.)K. Simple, alternate leaves; 2 1/2 to 5 inches long, double serrated margins with pointed tips. Upright'): A narrow, upright cultivar with improved red-orange fall color; 20 feet high by 10 feet wide. small, imbricate buds, 0.25" long; buds are pointed and hairy; alternate leaf arrangement ; clusters of nutlets with 3-winged bracts; fluted, muscle-like bark; dense, clean summer foliage; Propagation. The American hornbeam is a native forest understory tree in the Chicago area, making it useful for shady landscapes and naturalized or woodland gardens. It is also quite adaptable and can tolerate full sun. While they are able to grow in clay soil, loam is best. American Hop Hornbeam Propagation. Diagnosing a European hornbeam with powdery mildew is not a difficult task. The American hornbeam has some cultivars with slightly different appearances. Diseases, Insects & Other Pests. The American hornbeam is extremely resistant to both pests and diseases, so problems rarely arise.