When production was discouraged, though, the tenant farmers and small holders suffered most by not being able to ship enough to market to pay rents. The Farm Security Administration (FSA), established in 1937, was another New Deal program that further exacerbated income inequality between black and white farmers. © Kathy Weiser-Alexander/Legends of America, updated February 2019. The photographs of the Farm Security Administration (FSA)-Office of War Information (OWI), transferred to the Library of Congress in 1944, form an extensive pictorial record of American life between 1935 and 1943. The Resettlement Administration was a New Deal U.S. federal agency created May 1, 1935. In an effort to assist rural residents and tenant farmers, the â¦ The RA was headed by Rexford Tugwell, an economic advisor to President Franklin D. The New Deal programs and agencies, created under the leadership of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, had a powerful impact on the relationship of government to the people of the United States. During the FSA’s existence was a small but highly influential photography program that portrayed the challenges of rural poverty. However, the scope of the project expanded over time and the photographers turned to recording rural and urban conditions throughout the United States and mobilization efforts for World War II. Under him, the Information Division of the FSA adopted a goal of “introducing America to Americans,” via a focus on photography and written narratives. ", The FSA's primary mission was not to aid farm production or prices. The Farm Security Act officially transformed the RA into the Farm Security Administration (FSA). FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION. Support Living New Deal Join Our E-Mailing List Federal Emergency Relief Act (1933) The FERA was created on May 12, 1933, by the Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933, and President Roosevelt chose Harry Hopkins to be the administrator . When that program moved to the FSA, Stryker went with it. Between 1938 and 1945, under the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration, it oversaw the purchase of 590 farms with the intent of distributing land to working and middle-class Puerto Ricans. FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION (FSA). The program was managed by Roy Stryker, who initially headed the photograph division of the Resettlement Administration. These agencies were responsible for relocating Japanese Americans from their homes on the West Coast to Internment camps. Although the country spent two months with declining GDP, the effects of a declining economy were not felt until the Wall Street Crash in October 1929, and a major worldwide economic downturn ensued. FSA, the Farm Security Administration of 1935 and 1937; SCS, the Soil Conservation Service of 1935; And the REA, Rural Electrification Administration; The basic outlines of each of these programs have continued into the 21st Century. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Family needs were on the agenda, as the FSA set up a health insurance program and taught farm wives how to cook and raise children. A much larger program was $778 million in loans (at effective rates of about 1% interest) to 950,000 tenant farmers. Galleries like the Photo League in New York mounted shows of FSA work.  This law authorized a modest credit program to assist tenant farmers to purchase land, and it was the culmination of a long effort to secure legislation for their benefit. Then why not join the FSA Store Perks program and save more money on all of your usual purchases. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Conservative critics attacked the FSA and its predecessor, the Resettlement Administration (RA). Bill Ganzel, "FSA photography," Farming in the 1930s (2003): 1â3. One of the largest – Farm Bureau, strongly opposed the FSA as an experiment in collectivizing agriculture. The New York Public Library has 2,581 FSA images online. The FSA initiated a health care plan for participating farm families and promoted a range of educational and training programs. The photographers were under instruction from Washington, DC, as to what overall impression the New Deal wanted to portray. It succeeded the Resettlement Administration (1935â1937). Stryker sought photographs of migratory workers that would tell a story about how they lived day-to-day. It also deveâ¦ The photographers produced images that breathed a humanistic social visual catalyst of the sort found in novels, theatrical productions, and music of the time. At first, the photo division focused on the lives of sharecroppers in the South and of migratory agricultural workers in the Midwestern and western states. The key concepts that guided the FSA's tenant removals were: the definition of rural poverty as rooted in the problem of tenancy; the belief that economic success entailed particular cultural practices and social forms; and the commitment by those with political power to gain local support. It sought to relocate tenants, poor farmers, and sharecroppers onto government-owned group farms. In 1935, the economist Rexford Tugwell encouraged Roosevelt to establish what we now know as the Farm Security Administration. Join the FSA perks program Are you a regular FSA Store user? FSA farm programs help agricultural producers manage market risks, recover from disasters, and conserve and protect America's natural resources. " Those photographers wanted the government to move and give a hand to the people, as they were completely neglected and overlooked, thus they decided to start taking photographs in a style that we today call "documentary photography." A wave of discontent caused by mounting unemployment and farm failures had helped elect President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who promised Americans a "New Deal." Gray, "New Uses for Old Photos: Renovating FSA Photographs in World War II Posters,", During World War II the FSA administered the, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 15:55. Their images are now regarded as a "national treasure" in the United States, which is why this project is regarded as a work of art.. The RA also funded two documentary films by Pare Lorentz: The Plow That Broke the Plains, about the creation of the Dust Bowl, and The River, about the importance of the Mississippi River. Ralph W. Hollenberg collection of materials relating to the Farm Security Administration, Use of farmland owned by interned Japanese farmers, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture â Farm Security Administration, Indiana Farm Security Administration Photographs, Mary A. Sears collection of photographs pertaining to the Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association in California, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), National Bituminous Coal Conservation Act, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Farm_Security_Administration&oldid=992114181, United States Department of Agriculture agencies, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Greta De Jong, "'With the Aid of God and the F.S.A. The Farm Service Agency traces its beginnings to 1933, in the depths of the Great Depression. These many photographs form an extensive pictorial record of American life between 1935 and 1944. Stryker demanded photographs that "related people to the land and vice versa" because these photographs reinforced the RA's position that poverty could be controlled by "changing land practices." The photographs of the Farm Security Administration (FSA) and Office of War Information (OWI), transferred to the Library of Congress beginning in 1944. The mission of the FSA was to relocate farmers in the Dust Bowl regions. Fewer than half of those images survive and are housed in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. The FSA controlled the agricultural part of the evacuation. Focusing on recovery, its immediate goals were decreasing unemployment and providing welfare to needy Americans. , One of the activities performed by the RA and FSA was the buying out of small farms that were not economically viable, and the setting up of 34 subsistence homestead communities, in which groups of farmers lived together under the guidance of government experts and worked a common area. Eleven photographers came to work on this project (listed in order in which they were hired): Arthur Rothstein, Theo Jung, Ben Shahn, Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, Carl Mydans, Russell Lee, Marion Post Wolcott, Jack Delano, John Vachon, and John Collier.
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